Main types of batteries in the market

Main types of batteries in the market

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A battery is nothing more than a component that stores electricity so that it can be given when necessary. These components have undergone a great evolution from the years 90 thanks to its use in mobile telephony and in portable Informatics. This evolution will continue in an unstoppable way, probably thanks to the transport industry, mainly the Automobile.

Transport has worked throughout the twentieth century with fossil fuels (hydrocarbons, petrol and diesel mainly), but the depletion of these sources of energy makes the industry move towards the electrification of Cars.

All this development makes the batteries, each time they can store more energy with less space and at a lower Cost. Therefore the development is addressed to these two aspects: more energy per space/weight and less manufacturing Cost.

The main types of batteries we find are: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion, Lithium-polymer and Zebra. Let’s explain them a little bit.

Lead-acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries are the most used for Years. They have a low relationship between the weight they occupy and the energy they store, but they compensate, with which they last for a long time and have a relatively economic price.

From the environmental point of view, despite being the lead a heavy material, it is recycled up to 90% of its contents.

They have a recharge period that can last between 8 and 10 H.

They are used as batteries by cars, trucks and also for traction batteries such as transpallets, stackers , retractable trucks, Forklifts.


Nickel-cadmium Batteries

Although it made michos years that were discovered, its cost made wait for its utilization.

They consist of a nickel anode and a cadmium cathode. As cadmium is a heavy and very toxic metal, it is banned from the European Union from 2004.

It had the advantage of its long duration, some 1,500 recharges, but had other drawbacks, such as a low energy capacity per unit of weight and suffering the memory effect.


Nickel Metal hydride batteries

Nickel-metal hydride batteries were created in the years 70, but were recently introduced in the market, to replace those of * nickel and cadmium, which we have said are banned from the European Union.

They have more storage capacity per unit weight respect the lead batteries, but they continue to have the problem of the memory Effect.

Still they have been of the most used by the hybrid cars, since they give very good results.


Lithium-ion Batteries

Despite being a type of batteries that is known since 1960, its development is due to mobile telephony, since they manage to store a lot of energy.

Unlike previous ones it does not suffer from the memory effect, nor has a great loss of capacity because of the effect of not being used. These two features have increased use in portable devices, phones, laptops, etc.

Not everything can be advantages, that is to say, there are also drawbacks. One of them is overheating, besides being a little expensive at the moment, but like all technology its price tends to go down.


Lithium-polymer Batteries

It began to occur about 2006, so they are still in Development.

It is a variant of lithium-ion batteries, to which the electrolyte has been changed by a polymer, which may be in a solid or gelatinous state, which allows the manufacturer to be shaped to Taste.

This particularity makes mobile manufacturers very interested because it allows them more freedom when designing their mobile.

Another advantage is that they have a higher storage density, by the same weight they can store almost twice as much energy.

As drawbacks we have to become unstable if we overload them, just as if they are downloaded below a certain value.


Zebra Batteries

Its electrolyte, it needs to be at high temperatures, about 250 º to 350 º C, therefore they have to be isolated from the outside, to avoid energy losses, they are isolated to vacuum.

It has a storage capacity similar to that of Lithium-ion batteries, but with the advantage that they can work in high voltages, up to 600v, or to store large amounts of energy.

The number of battery cycles is about 1000. But you can charge up to your 50% with little time about 30 min.

At the moment there are few factories, there are some in switzerland.


Comparative table
Type of rechargeable batteriesEnergy (Wh/kg)Power/volume (Wh/l)Power/weight (W/Kg)Number of CyclesEnergy efficiency%
Zebra (NaNiCl)1253001.00092,5
Lithium polymer200300>30001.00090,0
Lithium ions1252701.8001.00090,0
Nickel Hydride-metal · (NiMH)70140-300250-1.0001.35070,0
Nickel Cadmium (NiCd)6050-1501501.35072,5
Acid lead4060-7518050082,5

For more information on batteries or to purchase any of them please contact Renobat.

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