The pace of electric vehicle implantation is far from expected. It will come, of that no one has doubts, but it will slow down and with intermediate phases like that of the plug-in hybrids, which seem for the moment the most attractive commercial option.
Last year, 1,585 electric vehicles (477 cars) were enrolled in Spain. That’s the point. To say that it is a very poor fact just look back just three years and discover estimates that shuffled the figure of 50,000 units sold in 2012. Of course, the crisis has caused a dramatic downturn in the sales of all types of vehicles. The patio is not for cars and it is clear that the launch of the electric vehicle has arrived at the worst time. Not just because of the depression of the consumption of those who might think of buying one. Also because its implementation requires reloading infrastructures for which there is little public money. And the manufacturing companies are today more tempted than ever by the portfolio before they undertake investments to produce the new models.
Thus it is not surprising that the global study on Automotion of the consultancy KPMG, based on surveys to 200 executives of the sector and published last month, notes that “the story of love with the pure electric car has vanished a bit while growing the inter s by hybrids and by improved internal combustion engines. ” Those who seem to have won many integers are the plug-in hybrids, which are seen with the greatest sales potential up to 2018, surpassing conventional hybrids.
Outside Spain also the electric extended autonomy are giving the stature, which corroborates that need to overcome some intermediate phases before the massive arrival of pure electric. In the United States, 23,400 units of the Chevrolet Volt were enrolled last year. They did not reach their sales goal, but it is triple that in 2011.
In China, a country that by its size could accelerate by itself the pace of implementation of the electric car, are increasingly concerned about pollution. That’s why Shanghai, the economic capital, has started offering free license plates for the electrics. Getting a new registration there implies an extraordinary disbursement.
Up to 9,000 euros were paid at the January monthly auction. The measure attempts to curb the excessive increase in the number of cars in a saturated city with serious environmental problems. Shanghai already has more than 1,000 recharge posts and plans to install another 50 stations with 5,000 recharge posts over the next three years.
82,000 Electroliners at 2020
On 24 January the European Commission announced the launching of a package of measures including the adoption of a directive to “ensure the creation of alternative fuel stations throughout Europe with common design and utilization standards”. It is a measure of extraordinary importance because the establishment of common standards was one of the main demands of the sector and can be an important revulsive. The measures affect vehicles powered by electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.
In the case of electric vehicles, the EC requests to move from 11,749 to 795,000 recharge points. The objective for Spain is to reach 82,000 stations (compared to 1,356 in 2011) to supply the 2.5 million of electric vehicles that the national Plan of Action of renewable Energies of Spain 2011-2020 (Panera) estimates that circulate in 2020, the figure more The EU’s high. But once again, they are still estimates.
The Council is likely to adopt the directive this year, but then the period of transposition to the Member States ‘ regulations must be added. The EC considers that “efforts to provide incentives for alternative fuels have been insufficient and uncoordinated.” Hence the preparation of the new regulation. “Most of the initiatives undertaken so far were mainly directed at vehicles and fuels themselves, regardless of the distribution of the latter,” they point from Brussels.
“The goal is to create a critical mass of recharge points for companies to produce massively affordable cars.” They also understand that it is essential to have a common plug for the whole EU, so they say that “to end the market uncertainty, the Commission has announced that the common standard for all Europe is the Type 2 plug (Mennekes, the most used one).” The cost of creating a minimum network of recharge points in the EU will be approximately 8 billion euros, according to the Commission’s calculations. The 2011 recharge infrastructure in the EU had 11,749 points. Germany, with 1,937, Holland, with 1,700, and France, with 1,600, are the most gifted countries. Around 1,350 are Spain, Italy and Portugal. ?
Aid to the purchase of an electric car
Some autonomous communities still have funds from the Movee Plan, which was launched in 2009 and has been extending its aid until last year. In addition, in September 2012, the so-called “Efficient Vehicle Incentive Program”, known as the PIVE Plan, was launched with a budget of 75 million euros. Its objective is to withdraw from the circulation 75,000 vehicles with more than 12 years of AntigÃ ¼ age, in the case of the cars (M1) and 10 years, in the case of the commercial ones (N1).
Last month Mariano Rajoy announced the extension of the plan, which doubles its budget to 150 million euros, and opens the fan to 10-year-old cars and commercial vehicles of 7. According to ANFAC, the Spanish Employers of automobile manufacturers, thanks to the PIVE the state has entered 296 million euros in tax collection. Four times more than the 75 million invested in 2012.
Vehicles capable of receiving the minimum aid of 2,000 euros must be class A or B in the IDAE database of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in new cars. And they cannot exceed 25,000 euros of price.
Nissan has just announced a sale of 3,000 euros in the Leaf, the first pure electric market manufactured in large series, which have already sold 50,000 units worldwide. Your price will now be 33,000 euros. The 80 hp electric motor is powered by lithium-ion batteries, which achieve an autonomy of 175 km. The maximum speed is 145 km/h. It has an Eco mode to optimize all consumption: speed, air conditioning, etc. The Full House load is done in eight hours while the fast charge allows to charge 80% of the battery in about 30 minutes. The Leaf was declared car of the year in the world in 2011 by a jury made up of 66 journalists from 24 countries.
Of all the electric vehicles sold in Spain last year, 932 have been Twizy, a tandem (one in front and another behind) that is manufactured exclusively in the factory of Valladolid. It measures 2.33 m long and 1.23 wide. It has two versions. The Twizy 45, of 4 KW of power and a maximum speed of 45 km/h, which can be driven with moped permit from 15 years. and the Twizy Urban (5,409 euros) for Carnet B, 13 KW of power and 80 km/h. The batteries are rented at the price of 50 euros per month, has an autonomy of 100 km. The complete recharge in domestic outlets is done in three and a half hours.
The electric variant will arrive in 2013 with its definitive configuration. The German manufacturer in this utility assembles a 82 hp engine and lithium batteries. The price will be around 19,000 euros, to which we must add 60 euros per month for the battery.
The first versions of this compact saloon of 90 CV, 4.1 meters long, five seats and a trunk of 340 liters, arrived last year. But the new Zoe, which will go on sale in March, presents interesting novelties. For example, autonomy grows to 210 kilometers of autonomy and its price will be around 21,000 euros. The batteries are rented separately.
-BMW i3 Coupe
With a carbon fiber structure to reduce the weight, the i3 of BMW measures 3.85 meters, four squares and maintains the sporty character of the brand. In fact, your engine has a power of 170 hp and accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in eight seconds. It will arrive at the end of the year, with an autonomy of 180 km.
-Ford Focus Electric
Its launch was scheduled for the end of 2012 but will arrive next summer. It will have an autonomy of 165 km and a maximum speed limited to 136 km/h. The manufacturer emphasizes that it can be recharged in half the time of the electrical ones of its category, ie, in 3-4 hours in a domestic plug.
Another model that has delayed its launch for a few months. Has a battery
17.6 KWh, with an autonomy of 145 km and a recharge time of about three hours and a half to reach 80%. In a household plug the full charge lasts about eight hours and one hour on a fast recharge post. It reaches a maximum speed of 120 km/h, with a remarkable acceleration capacity. It offers coupe and Cabrio Bodyworks and prices from 18,950 euros, plus the monthly rent of the batteries.
-Toyota Prius Plug-In
In 2012 sold 406 units of this car (3,469 of the hybrid Prius conventional). The Toyota Prius plug-in was the first plug-in hybrid that came to Spain. Its 4.4 kWh lithium ion batteries allow for 23 km. Together, its thermal and electric motors deliver 136 hp of power. It reaches a peak speed of 180 km/h and an average consumption of 2.2 liters at 100 km (30% less than the normal hybrid), with CO2 emissions of 49 g/km. The batteries are recharged in an hour and a half. The Prius Plug-in allows for three driving modes. HV mode, with the same characteristics of the hybrid. EV mode uses the battery to the maximum, making it possible to drive only with the electric motor. and EV-City mode, which gives priority to electric traction and allows greater use of the accelerator before the petrol engine is started.
Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV
It will be presented in March, at the Geneva Motor Show, although its launch in Europe will not arrive until the month of July. The Mitsubishi plug-in hybrid SUV can travel up to 52 kilometers in electric mode. Combined consumption is 1.9 liters per hundred kilometres and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reach 44 grams per kilometre. It has a 463 litre trunk.
-Volvo V60 PHEV
This plug-in diesel allows to travel 50 kilometers in pure electric mode. According to the manufacturer at the end of 2012, “the lot of 1,000 units of the first year have been sold, even before the vehicle reached the showrooms and the order books for next year (2013) are already filling.” It combines an engine 2.4 turbodiesel of 215 CV with another electric of 70, coupled on the rear axle, which makes it possible to drive 4×4. It has automatic change and three modes of operation: hybrid, electric and sport. The first one combines the two engines, with an average consumption of 1.9 liters, a maximum autonomy of 1,200 km and CO2 emissions of 50 g/km. 12 KWh Lithium-ion batteries can be charged in three hours in a household plug. Its price will be around 60,000 euros.
Available for a year, the amp is the twin brother of the Chevrolet Volt. Its price, before aid, is 47,000 euros. It allows to travel the first 60 km with the batteries. A 86 HP petrol engine is then launched to power the electric motor that moves the wheels. The 16 kWh Lithium ion batteries, which should last ten years according to the manufacturer, give life to an electric motor of 150 hp/111 KW. According to Opel, the car offers a total autonomy of more than 500 kilometers, it consumes 1.2 liters at 100 km and emits 27 grams of CO2 per km. Its peak speed is 161 km/h. The vehicle can be recharged in about four hours. Measures 4.49 long by 1.78 wide